Abstract

Case Report

Pig raising practices by unprivileged, ethnic people in Bangladesh

Ausraful Islam*, Ashika Akbar Trisha, Md. Safiul Ahad Sardar, Mohammady Akbor, Abdulla Al Mamun Bhuyan, Md. Sazzad Hossain, Md. Ashraf Zaman Faruk, Sheikh Muhammad Khaled Sharif, Zannatun Nahar and Anisuzzaman

Published: 15 January, 2021 | Volume 5 - Issue 1 | Pages: 001-007

We interviewed 207 pig raisers from seven different districts of Bangladesh to explore their practices related to their pig farming. We used structured questionnaires to interview the pig raisers and used descriptive statistics for analysis. Most of the pig raisers (54%) were illiterate. 50% (104) of them had a monthly income of less than 10000 BDT and 60% (124) were landless. Most of the pig raisers (92%, 191) were rearing local breed and 67% of them were practicing semi-scavenging system. As feed source 55% (114) pig owners used kitchen waste and 54% (111) used rice husk. The pig raisers mentioned different types of challenges such as social problem (16%), disease (50%), less profitable (20%) and unavailability of feed (19%). In our study, we found that 31% respondents visited veterinarians, 28% visited quack and 21% do not take any action when their pigs were sick. Only 16% pig raisers used vaccines against different infectious diseases and 36% used anthelmintics against parasitic diseases. Awareness buildup of the pig raisers may help them raising pigs in a better way which will improve the farming system and reduce the probability of disease transmission.

Read Full Article HTML DOI: 10.29328/journal.ivs.1001028 Cite this Article Read Full Article PDF

Keywords:

Swine; Pig raisers; Poverty; Zoonotic diseases

References

  1. Anderson LL, editor. Pigs. 3rd ed: Lea and Fabiger; 1974.
  2. Mpofu I, Makuza SMM, editors. Pig Production Science and Technology. UK: Upfront Publishing; 2003.
  3. Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics. Report of the household-based livestock and poultry survey 2009. In: Division S, editor: Ministry of Planning, Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh; 2010.
  4. Heitzman J, Worden R. Bangladesh a country study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress. 1989.
  5. World Population Review. Bangladesh Population 2019 http://worldpopulationreview.com/countries/bangladesh-population/.
  6. Barakat A, Halim S, Poddar A, Badiuzzaman M, Osman A, et al. Socio-economic Baseline Survey of Chittagong Hill Tracts. Dhaka, Bangladesh: Human Development Research Center; 2009.
  7. Dhamai BM, editor Migration and Indigenous People: A Perspective of Bangladesh. Expert Workshop on Indigenous Peoples and Migration. Geneva. 2006.
  8. Nahar N, Uddin M, Sarkar RA, Gurley ES, Uddin Khan MS, et al. Exploring pig raising in Bangladesh: implications for public health interventions. Vet Ital. 2013; 49: 7-17. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23564585/
  9. Khan SU, Salje H, Hannan A, Islam MA, Bhuyan AA, et al. Dynamics of Japanese encephalitis virus transmission among pigs in Northwest Bangladesh and the potential impact of pig vaccination. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2014; 8: e3166. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25255286/
  10. Erlanger TE, Weiss S, Keiser J, Utzinger J, Wiedenmayer K. Past, present, and future of Japanese encephalitis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009; 15: 1–7. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19116041/
  11. Solomon T. Control of Japanese encephalitis—within our grasp? N Engl J Med. 2006; 355: 869–871. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16943399/
  12. Haider N, Khan MSU, Hossain MB, Sazzad HMS, Rahman MZ, et al. Serological evidence of hepatitis E virus infection in pigs and jaundice among pig handlers in Bangladesh. Zoonoses Public Health. 2017; 64: 572-577. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28670851/
  13. Rahman MS, Nuruzzaman M, Ahasan MS, Sarker RR, Chakrabartty A, et al. Prevalence of brucellosis in pigs: the first reprot in Bangladesh. Bangladesh J Vet Med. 2012; 10: 75-80.
  14. Sardar SADCAKHAI. Helminthiasis in the pigs of Rangamati district of Bangladesh. Eurasian J Vet Sci. 2012; 28: 233-236.
  15. Islam A, Anisuzzaman, Majumder S, Rabbi AKMA, Hossain MM. Prevalence and pathology of helminth Infections in pigs. Pak J Sci Industrial Res. 2008; 51: 317-322.
  16. Anower AKM, Ahmed MM, Rahman MM, Hasan A, Islam MA, et al. Hygienic farming system improved pig-rearers livlihood statud in South-West region of Bangladesh. Int J Avian Wildlife Biol. 2017; 2: 00025.
  17. Motsa’A JS, Defang HF, Keambou CT. Socio-economic and technical characteristics of pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) production system in the humid forest with monomodal rainfall agro-ecological zone of Cameroon. Int J Biologi Chem Sci. 2018; 12: 2318-2327.
  18. Maharjan KL, Fradejas CC. A Study of the Problems Confronting the Backyard Pig Raisers in Batangas Province of Southern Luzon. J Rural Prob. 2005; 41: 236-241.
  19. Mekuriaw Y, Asmare B. Assessment of Pig Production and Constraints in Mecha District, Amhara Region, Northwestern Ethiopia. Advances in Agriculture. 2014; 2014.
  20. Toppo A, Rahman MR, Ali MY, Javed A. Socio-economic Condition of Plain Land Tribal People in Bangladesh. Social Sciences. 2016; 5: 58-63.
  21. Khanum R, Mahadi MSA, Islam MS. Tribal womens involvement with pig farming in Bangladesh: an evidence of Moulvibazar district. SAARC J Agricul. 2018; 16: 115-127.
  22. Umeh JC, Ogbanje C, Adijo MA. Technical Efficiency Analysis of Pig Production: A Sustainable Animal Protein Augmentation for Nigerians. J Advan Agricul Technol. 2015; 2: 19-24.
  23. Ritchil CH, Faruque MO, Tabassum F, Hossain MM, Bhuiuyan KFH. Socio-economic status of pig rearers and managementsystem of native pigs in Bangladesh. Indian J Animal Sci. 2013; 83: 1226-1228.
  24. Nice Foundation. Securing the livelihood through improvement of Kawra/pig-rearing community of southwest Bangladesh. http://www.bluegoldbd.org/innovationfund/project-examples/hygienic-pig-rearing/.
  25. Joshi DD, Moller LN, Maharjan M, Kapel CM. Serological evidence of Trichinellosis in local pigs of Nepal. Vet Parasitol. 2005; 132: 155-157.
  26. Prakash A, Kumar GS, Rout M, Nagarajan K, Kumar R. Neurocysticercosis in free roaming pigs - a slaughterhouse survey. Trop Animal Health Produc. 2007; 39: 391-394.
  27. Prasad KN, Prasad A, Gupta RK, Pandey CM, Singh U. Prevalence and associated risk factors of Taenia solium taeniasis in a rural pig farming community of north India. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2007; 101: 1241-1247. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17603090/
  28. Prasad KN, Verma A, Srivastava S, Gupta RK, Pandey CM, Paliwal VK. An epidemiological study of asymptomatic neurocysticercosis in a pig farming community in northern India. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2011; 105: 531-536.
  29. Yu H, Zhou Y, Li G, Zhang G, Liu H, Yan L, et al. Further evidence for infection of pigs with human-like H1N1 influenza viruses in China. Virus Res. 2009; 140: 85-90. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19063926/
  30. de Jong J, Smith D, Lapedes A, Donatelli I, Campitelli L, Barigazzi G, et al. Antigenic and Genetic Evolution of Swine Influenza A (H3N2) Viruses in Europe. J Virol. 2007; 81: 4315-4322. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17287258/
  31. Patr MK, Begum S, Deka BC. Problems and Prospects of Traditional Pig Farming for Tribal Livelihood in Nagaland. Indian Res J Extension Education. 2014; 14: 6-11.
  32. Ahmed K, Ahmed N, Kalita D, Barman D. Housing practices for small scale pig production in rural communities of Assam. International J Chem Studies. 2017; 5: 519-521.
  33. Rahman S, Barthakur S, Kalita G. Pig production and management system in Aizawl District of Mizoram, India. Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2008; 20.
  34. Wang JP, Kim JD, Kim JE, Kim IH. Amino acid digestibility of single cell protein from Corynebacterium ammonia genes in growing pigs. Animal Feed Sci Technol. 2013; 180: 111–114.
  35. Lemke U, Kaufmann B, Thuy LT, Emrich K, A. VZ. Evaluation of smallholder pig production system in North Vietnam. Agricul Sys. 2006; 96: 207–223.
  36. Peter G, Jackson G, Cockcroft PD. Handbook of Pig Medicine. New York, USA: Elsevier Science Inc.; 2007.
  37. Islam A, Majumder S, Anisuzzaman, Rabbi AKMA, Rahman MS, et al. Prevalence and pathology of ticks and lice of pigs in realtion to age and management systems in Bangladesh. Int J Biores. 2006; 1: 22-27.
  38. Ayoade GO, Adejinmi JO, Abiola JO, Lucas F. Efficacy of some anthelmintics used in procince prac tice in Ibadan, Nigeria. African J Biomed Res. 2003; 6: 109-110.
  39. Islam A, Singa AK, Majumder S, Anisuzzaman A, Rabbi AKMA, et al. Comperative efficacy of anthelmintics against helminth parasites of pigs. Int J Biores. 2006; 2: 35-41.
  40. Garten RJ, Davis CT, Russell CA, Shu B, Lindstrom S, et al. Antigenic and genetic characteristics of swine-origin 2009 A(H1N1) influenza viruses circulating in humans. Science. 2009; 325: 197-201. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3250984/
  41. Gray GC, Trampel DW, Roth JA. Pandemic influenza planning: shouldn’t swine and poultry workers be included? Vaccine. 2007; 25: 4376-4381.PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1939697/
  42. Meseko C, Globig A, Ijomanta J, Joannis T, Nwosuh C, Shamaki D, et al. Evidence of exposure of domestic pigs to Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 in Nigeria. Scientific Reports. 2018; 8: 5900.
  43. Li H, Yu K, Yang H, Xin X, Chen J, Zhao P, et al. Isolation and characterization of H5N1 and H9N2 influenza viruses from pigs in China. Chinese J Prevent Vet Med. 2004; 26: 1-6.
  44. Cyranoski D. Birdflu spreads among Java’s pigs. Nature. 2005; 435: 390.

Figures:

Figure 1

Figure 1

Figure 1

Figure 2

Figure 1

Figure 3

Similar Articles

  • Pig raising practices by unprivileged, ethnic people in Bangladesh
    Ausraful Islam*, Ashika Akbar Trisha, Md. Safiul Ahad Sardar, Mohammady Akbor, Abdulla Al Mamun Bhuyan, Md. Sazzad Hossain, Md. Ashraf Zaman Faruk, Sheikh Muhammad Khaled Sharif, Zannatun Nahar and Anisuzzaman Ausraful Islam*,Ashika Akbar Trisha,Md. Safiul Ahad Sardar,Mohammady Akbor,Abdulla Al Mamun Bhuyan,Md. Sazzad Hossain,Md. Ashraf Zaman Faruk,Sheikh Muhammad Khaled Sharif,Zannatun Nahar,Anisuzzaman. Pig raising practices by unprivileged, ethnic people in Bangladesh. . 2021 doi: 10.29328/journal.ivs.1001028; 5: 001-007

Recently Viewed

Read More

Most Viewed

Read More